During the American Revolution, three groups of people built forts on Aquidneck Island: the colonials, the English and their Hessian allies, and the French under Rochambeau with the aid of the colonial militia. In the winter of 1976, a study was published in the Bulletin of the Newport Historical Society which went into a detailed analysis of map locations of the forts, based on recently available maps drawn by British and French forces that occupied the island. The result of this analysis indicated that the redoubt located on Vernon Avenue in Middletown was not an English fort, but one built by the French in 1780, for the Regiment de St. Onge. Walsh examines this analysis and explains the true history of the fort using maps.
"The Story of the Analysis of Green End Fort,"
Newport History: Vol. 54
, Article 2.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.salve.edu/newporthistory/vol54/iss184/2