An examination of the religion of Islam and its unique characteristics, especially those that may relate to the politics and government of the Republic of Turkey, assist in understanding the relationship between the two. The 99% Muslim population affects the country politically and socially. There are many aspects of Sunni Islam, the majority in Turkey, that conflict with the secular nature of Turkey. Despite its apparent differences with the manner in which Turkey is governed, Islam has been able to exist in the country. Although religion is a personal matter, it becomes a concern if one is unable to practice it freely, which has been an issue in Turkey with the headscarf ban and many other reforms made at the formation of the republic. Ataturk was the great influence in Turkey’s major secular reforms, and it is these reforms of the past that create challenges today.